Prof. Dimitrios Buhalis

Prof. Dimitrios Buhalis
August 3, 2020


Welcome to Tourism Review & Encyclopedia of Tourism Management and Marketing

  • From now on Tourism Review will curate issues to address cutting edge tourism issues.
  • Volume 75 (issue 3) focuses more on experience both online and offline and…
  • explores co-creation of value within the tourism ecosystem.

Dimitrios Buhalis
Editor in Chief Tourism Review

Editor in Chief, Encyclopedia of Tourism Management and Marketing

Hung-Che Wu, Chi-Han Ai, Ching-Chan Cheng Virtual reality experiences, attachment and experiential outcomes in tourism

Tourism Review, 75(3), pp. 481-495.


Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the structural relationships between the dimensions of virtual reality (VR) experiences (immersion, interaction, usability and illusion), the dimensions of VR attachment (VR dependence, VR identity, VR affect and VR familiarity) and the dimensions of VR experiential outcomes (VR experiential satisfaction, VR experiential loyalty and VR experiential advocacy).

Design/methodology/approach – A total of 490 visitors who tried 360 VR travel video games in the TripMoment VR were surveyed.

Findings – In this study, there are positive relationships between VR experiential satisfaction and immersion, interaction, illusion, as well as VR identity, VR affect and VR familiarity. In addition, VR experiential satisfaction has a positive relationship with VR experiential loyalty. In addition, VR experiential advocacy has a positive relationship with both VR experiential satisfaction and VR experiential loyalty.

Practical implications – The results show that tourism operators should focus on increasing VR experiential satisfaction and experiential loyalty to enable visitors to have intentions to advocate their VR experiences.

Originality/value – This paper provides the data that lead to a better understanding of the relationship between the dimensions of VR experiences, VR attachment and VR experiential outcomes in the tourism industry.

Full paper:

Sandra Navarro-Ruiz, Bob McKercher. The usability of visitor attractions: state-of-the-art

Tourism Review, 75(3), pp. 497-509.


Purpose – Visitor attractions constitute the essence of the tourism phenomenon. However, management techniques that are expressly designed for tourism and develop different uses/activities and subsequently influence visitor experiences are under-researched. Hence, the purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework that provides a bridge between on-site management, visitor attraction development and visitor experience by introducing a novel concept: ‘‘usability of visitor attractions.’’ This new concept captures how managers can develop uses for visitors to experience the attraction. Thus, this study explores this concept and serves as the foundation for further research on this topic.

Design/methodology/approach – The systematization of the state of the art is based on an exhaustive desk research review of both academic and grey literature to endorse the ‘‘usability of visitor attractions’’ concept.

Findings – The literature review reveals that visitor attraction management affects visitor experience. To succeed, managers should consider the ease of use and the design of activities. Therefore, an innovative conceptual model is built to explore how on-site management techniques based on this new concept impact on visitor’s experience.

Originality/value – Research on visitor experience in attractions has neglected the impact of on-site management tools hitherto. Therefore, the
originality of the study lies on providing a robust framework that enlightens how visitor attraction management affects visitor experience by developing the usability. The study proposes a novel concept and an original model that will be of a critical interest to tourism academia and will serve as practical guidance for attraction managers.

Full paper:

Erose Sthapit, Giacomo Del Chiappa, Dafnis N. Coudounaris, Peter Bjork. Determinants of the continuance intention of Airbnb users: consumption values, co-creation, information overload and satisfaction

Tourism Review, 75(3), pp. 511-531.


Purpose – This study aims to examine the relationships among the dimensions of consumption values (functional, social and emotional), co-creation, information overload, satisfaction and continuance intention derived from the use of the Airbnb platform.

Design/methodology/approach – A Web-based survey was conducted among Italians, and a valid sample of 259 persons was obtained for data analysis.

Findings – The survey results indicated that only functional value and social value are strong predictors of satisfaction in the use of the Airbnb website for accommodation booking. Co-creation and absence of information overload also contribute to satisfaction with using the Airbnb website for accommodation booking, which in turn affects continuance intention.

Research limitations/implications – The findings of this study are highly destination-specific, given that the authors collected the data only from Italian residents. The sample was based on a snowball sampling technique; thus, the study findings could be misrepresented because of sampling selection bias. Moreover, the study was limited to the use of three dimensions of consumption values, co-creation, information overload and satisfaction to predict continuance intention. Furthermore, the present study adopted a Web-based survey questionnaire.

Practical implications – Managerial implications include recommendations for hosts to emphasise their prices when listing accommodations on the Airbnb website and to focus on active interaction with potential guests. Information on the website should also be organised to avoid information overload.

Originality/value – This study allows a deeper understanding of users’ continuance intention with regards to the Airbnb website by exploring the possible determinants.

Full paper:

Erose Sthapit, Giacomo Del Chiappa, Dafnis N. Coudounaris, Peter Björk. Tourism experiences, memorability and behavioural intentions: a study of tourists in Sardinia, Italy

Tourism Review, 75(3), pp. 533-558.


Purpose – The purpose of this study is to test Kim et al.’s (2012) seven-dimension memorable tourism experience (MTE) scale in a new context and with a new sample. In addition, the study aims to test for causes or relationships between satisfaction, MTE dimensions, co-creative tourism experiences and memorability, as well as the mediating effect of memorability on tourists’ behavioural intention.

Design/methodology/approach – This study uses a cross-sectional survey design using a questionnaire to collect data. Three trained interviewers questioned international travellers in the boarding area in Olbia-Costa Smeralda Airport while they were waiting to board their flights home. The interviewers also distributed and administered the questionnaires. The questionnaire was in English. Data collection was carried out from August to October 2017.

Findings – In terms of the theoretical implications of this study, its findings result in a different MTE construct than that of Kim et al.’s (2012) study. Although they discuss seven important experiential tourism factors that are likely to affect the memorability of a person’s experience, what emerges from the present research is that satisfaction, novelty, refreshment, involvement and knowledge significantly influence the memorability of a tourist’s experience.

Research limitations/implications – This study has some limitations. First, it is highly site-specific and based on a convenience sample, rendering the
findings non-generalizable to either the destination under investigation or any other tourism destination. Further studies should be conducted in other Mediterranean cities to generalise the significance of these findings. Although English can be considered the primary international language, the fact that the survey has been written only in English could have excluded non-English speakers from participating in the study. In addition, the study has not considered national domestic tourists. In the future, translating the survey into different languages and interviewing domestic tourists visiting the island might be useful.

Practical implications – Tourism service providers could gather feedback forms from tourists to measure and improve their satisfaction. Additionally, the multiplicity of actors involved in the tourism sector should coordinate and cooperate with one another to create tourism experiences that result in high overall visitor satisfaction. Tourism service providers could also offer new and diverse encounters, for example, the chance to attend local festivals to arouse curiosity, as studies suggest that such novel activities make the experiences particularly memorable. Public officials should also focus on site rejuvenation to appeal to novelty seekers who have visited previously.

Originality/value – Overall, the study highlights the discrepancies in the effects of satisfaction, MTE dimensions and co-creative tourism experience on the memorability of a trip experience in relation to previous studies. The results of the analysis refute the assumption that the seven MTE dimensions are representative across a variety of destination-specific tourist experiences. Besides the identified five dimensions, opening up the discussion on other factors that might influence the memorability of tourists’ experiences presents an updated agenda.

Full paper:

Ahmed Kamassi, Noor Hazilah Abd Manaf, Azura Omar. The identity and role of stakeholders in the medical tourism industry: state of the art

Tourism Review, 75(3), pp. 559-574.


Purpose – This paper aims to address and identify the major stakeholders in the medical tourism industry, based on their participation in medical tourism activities and their support for medical tourism development.

Design/methodology/approach – This paper systematically reviews the content of medical tourism studies from literature to identify key stakeholders and address the roles they play in the medical tourism industry.

Findings – This study shows that the key stakeholders in the medical tourism industry are eight, namely, medical tourists, health-care providers, government agencies, facilitators, accreditation and credentialing bodies, health-care marketers, insurance providers and infrastructure and facilities. These stakeholders strongly influence medical tourists’ decision-making process in seeking medical treatment abroad. Besides, a successful medical tourism development depends greatly on the excellent partnership between all stakeholders.

Practical implications – This paper sheds light on the crucial role of these stakeholders that can be an important consideration in medical tourists’ decision-making process and industry growth. The study can facilitate policymakers in designing and developing policies to improve medical tourism practices.

Originality/value – This paper expands the knowledge about medical tourism literature by identifying and explaining the significant role of each stakeholder in the industry. The results of this paper are quite revealing to all practitioners in terms of the potential strategies and medical tourism growth. The study establishes a foundation for future medical tourism research in the rapidly growing industry.

Full paper:

Mahfuzur Rahman, Sedigheh Moghavvemi, Thinaranjeney Thirumoorthi, Muhammad Khalilur Rahman. The impact of tourists’ perceptions on halal tourism destination: a structural model analysis

Tourism Review, 75(3), pp. 575-594.


Purpose – Though halal-related services have been discussed in tourism services literature, exploratory study in this area is not enough,particularly in non-Muslim tourists’ perspectives. This study aims to investigate the impact of non-Muslim tourists’ perceptions of halal products or services on their loyalty of intention for halal tourism destination.

Design/methodology/approach – Structured questionnaires are used for collecting data from non-Muslim tourists. SmartPLS is used in this study for data analysis.

Findings – The results find that banning non-halal services and implementing halal food product services are significantly related to trip experience and trip value. General halal services are positively related to trip value, whereas trip experience is not associated with it. In addition, trip experience and trip value have a significant impact on satisfaction. The results also find that tourists’ loyalty intention is attributed to satisfaction of non-Muslim tourists. ‘

Originality/value – The study reveals new insight into halal tourism in the perspective of non-Muslim tourists’ halal products or service toward their future travel to halal destination. The contribution of this study is important for tourism operators, managers and marketers of destination tourism with a direct/indirect leadership to improve the tourism destination for non-Muslim tourists’ perceptions.

Full paper:

Mark Burnett, Tony Johnston. Brexit anticipated economic shock on Ireland’s planning for hospitality and tourism: resilience, volatility and exposure

Tourism Review, 75(3), pp. 595-606.


Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore tourism scenario planning for an anticipated shock as viewed through the lens of Irish hospitality managers preparing for Brexit. The research appropriates a climate science framework to structure the study, situating preparations, or lack thereof, against the themes of volatility, exposure and resilience.

Design/methodology/approach – The research uses a qualitative, pragmatic approach to determine how senior Irish hospitality managers were preparing for Britain’s exit from the European Union. Semi-structured interviews were used to gather data conducted with hotel management, industry federations and tourism policymakers.

Findings – Buoyancy of the industry, from an industry perspective, little foreseeable threat to the sector, has caused management to develop complacent tendencies, a myopic viewpoint and a head-in-the-sand mindset. Their ‘‘wait and see’’ and ‘‘ad hoc’’ approaches to planning for an anticipated shock suggest an industry that believes itself to be resistant to threats.

Practical implications – The findings suggest that although tourism has been resilient to economic shocks in the past, historical lessons learned have not been implemented in anticipation of the next shock. More proactive engagement and better strategic preparedness is necessary to mitigate the impacts of future shocks. Industry needs to acknowledge its role in developing resilience and reducing volatility and exposure. The government additionally needs to coordinate initiatives with industry to develop robustness.

Originality/value – The paper demonstrates areas of practice in the hospitality industry that could be improved to reduce volatility and exposure, enhance resilience and encourage rapid adaptability post crisis.

Full paper:

I would like to invite you to submit an entry for my new project:


Call for Encyclopedia Entries:

  • Submit your 200 words proposal for an entry on by 30 September 2020.
  • A term is 1500 words – 1 figure – 8 references.
  • Please Upload 200-word proposal by 30 September 2020 and upload your entry by 31 December 2020.
  • You can upload the entire entry too if you are ready and you are confident that you have a comprehensive entry. The sooner the better!



Prof. Dimitrios Buhalis

Prof. Dimitrios Buhalis
August 3, 2020

Last updated on August 5, 2020